This module will cover a basic introduction to the three kinds of opioids that have driven the largest waves of morbidity and mortality in the United States and New York State along with the epidemiology of each wave of overdose deaths, tracing the important public health and policy decisions that have affected opioid users involved in the criminal justice system. It will examine the history of the current opioid epidemic in relation to opioid epidemics of the past, focusing on important racial disparities that have affected opioid users throughout both crises. Following this historical discussion, it will turn to an outline of some key risk factors that may predispose individuals to be at greater risk of developing an opioid use disorder or dying from overdose. Finally, this module will conclude with an exploration of how NYS is leading the way in stemming the tide of opioid overdose deaths in criminal justice populations through the establishment of new and innovative Opioid Intervention Courts (OIC). *This module is pending accreditation for Continuing Legal Education (CLE) credit in New York. If you are interested in receiving legal education credit once the course is approved, you'll have the opportunity to request a future certificate at the completion of the module.